21. Gurbaani Raag Maaru

Maru is an old raga seldom heard in concerts today. Some theorists equate it with Maruva or 'Marva. In the Ragmala, Maru is a putra (son) of Malkaunsa. It is found in other classifications from the 14th to the early 19th century. Maru was used by Guru Nanak, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur for 144 hymns, two vars plus a large number of slokas. One of its variations is Maru Kafi. Maru is assigned to the hours of sunset and is considered suitable for the cold season. The mood is quiet and contemplative. The tonal material given here is for Maru Bihag, Bilaval thata.

Aroh  Sa Ga Ma Pa, Dha Ni Sa

Avroh  Sa Ni Dha Pa, M'a Pa Dha Ni Dha Pa Ma Ga Re Sa

Pakar  Pa Dha Ni Dha Pa Ma Pa ~Ma Ga, Pa Dha Pa Ga Re, Ga Re Sa

Vadi  Pa

Samvadi  Ni


According to Indian Schools of music this raga is a very old and popular raga. It is also known as raga Malav, Marva,and Marvic. It belongs to Marva thaht. It is classified as a son of raga Malkaus.

This raga is also mentioned as a son of raga Malkausak in the Ragamala listed at the end of Guru Granth Sahib. According to Late Ustad Ameer Khan this raga gives a feeling of separation and gloomy mood. It makes one sad after listening to this raga.

The scale and notes of the raga are as follows:

Arohi (ascending scale) - sa magama pa dha ni sa

Avrohi (descending scale) - sa ni dha pa ma dha pa ma pa ga sa

The vadi (most popular) note is 'ga' and samvadi (second most popular) note is sa'.

This raga is sung at the third part of the day i.e., from 12 noon to 3 p.m. The season of its recitation is winter (shisher) i.e., during December, January. In Guru Granth Sahib it has hymns from pages 989- 1106 (118 pages).

The Composers

The composers of bani (hymns) in this raga are: