484. Name the twelve Sikh Misls (regiments).

485. What were these Misls collectively called ?

Dal Khalsa

486. Who was the founder of the Dal Khalsa ?

Nawab Kapur Singh

487. When was Jassa Singh chosen the Supreme Commander of the Dal Khalsa ?

March 29, 1748 A.D.

488. What is a 'Rauni' ?

Rauni is a thick boundary wall or enclosure. It is not a fortress or a fort, but is a minor shelter.

489. What was the name of the Rauni built in Amritsar in April, 1748 ?

Ram Rauni, after the name of the fourth Guru, Guru Ramdas. The enclosure was built on a piece of land near Ramsar.

490. Whom did Nawab Kapur Singh appoint as the new Jathedaar of the Khalsa Panth ?

Jassa Singh Ahluwalia in 1753.

491. Who laid the foundation stone of Harmandar Saheb when it was rebuilt by the Taruna Dal ?

Jassa Singh Ahluwalia

492. Name the Sikh warrior who was awarded the title Sultan-ul-Quam (King of the Khalsa Panth).

Jassa Singh Ahluwalia when he defeated the ruler of Lahore in 1761

493. When did Jassa Singh Ahluwalia occupy Kapurthala ?

In 1778, Jassa Singh occupied Kapurthala and assumed the title of king. He also issued coins.

494. What was the inscription on the coins minted by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia in the name of the Gurus ?

Deg o teg o fateh o nusrat bedirang
Yaft az Nanak Guru Gobind Singh

495. When Adeena Beg failed in his negotiations with Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, who refused to accept a share in political power or to have an independent state, whom did he manage to net in to serve under him ?

Jassa Singh Ramgharia, his 3 brothers and some associates.

496. When was Ram Rauni seized and for how long ?

The Ram Rauni was seized in October, 1748 by Adeena Beg and Jassa Singh Ramgharia and the seize went on for 3 months from October-December, 1748.

497. What did Jassa Singh Ramgharia decide to do ?

He decided to desert the royal army and join his brethren Singhs.

498. When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the second time ?

December, 1748 A.D., nine months after his first invasion in March, 1748.

499. Who made an offering of Rs.11000 for the service of the holy tank at Harmandir Saheb ?

Diwan Koura Mal made this offering. The holy tank which had been filled up by the orders of Lakhpat Rai in Yahiya Khan's time, was dug up and cleaned.

500. When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the third time ?

January, 1752 A.D.

501. When was Diwan Koura Mal killed ?

March 1752 A.D. He was killed by a shot fired by an agent of Adeena Beg during the defeat of Mir Mannu at the hands of the Durranis.

502. When was the persecution of Sikhs by Mir Mannu renewed ?

March 1752 A.D.

503. How did Mir Mannu treat Sikh women ?

He tortured them in order to force them to abandon their religion. He ordered the children and babies of imprisoned Sikh women to be speared alive, or cut up into pieces and made into necklaces to be put around the mother's neck.

504. How many years did this slaughter of Sikh children go on for ?

Four years

505. During the persecution of Sikhs by Mir Mannu what price was paid for the severed head of a Sikh ?

Rs. 80 (equivalent to one year's pay).