17. Bhai Jivan Singh Ji
Bhai Jaita was born to Bhai Sada Nand and Mata Premo at 1:13 A.M. on the 7th
moon day of Poh Bikram Samwat, 1718 i.e. Tuesday, the 13th December, 1661 CE
at Patna Sahib. The Ninth Sikh Guru Guru Tegh Bahadur named the child
In December, 1665 CE, Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib set out on his 3rd missionary
tour of the eastern parts of India. He took Bhai Sada Nand and his family
along with him. He left his wife Mata Gujri and other female members of the
family at Patna, under the supervision of Bhai Kirpal Chand, the brother of
Guru Tegh Bahadur's only son, Gobind Rai (later Guru Gobind Singh), was born
in Patna on 22 December 1666. The next day i.e. 23 December 1666, Bhai
Sangata, the second son of Bhai Sada Nand was born. While carrying on his
missionary propagation the Guru reached Anandpur Sahib by the middle of
1670. But Mata Gujri and Gobind Rai continued to stay at Patna Sahib.
At Patna during their childhood, Bhai Jaita and his younger brother Bhai
Sangata were playmates of Gobind Rai. Once while playing on the bank of the
Ganges, their return home was delayed a little. In their hurry Jaita started
tying the turban of young Gobind Rai on his own head. Realizing the mistake
Bhai Jaita returned the turban to Gobind Rai, whereupon Gobind Rai remarked,
"Jaite, the time for you to tie my turban has not yet come. When the time
comes I will myself put my turban on your head."
Family background :
The Ninth Master Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib before acceding to the guruship
kept meditating in a basement from 1644–1664 A.D., mainly at Baba Bakala,
where Bhai Sada Nand was in attendance. The name of Bhai Sada Nand is
mentioned in the Hukamnamahs of Guru Tegh Bahadur. This easily ascertains
his place in the Guru’s establishment. Bhai Sada Nand was the son of Bhai
Jas Bhan, Grand-Son of Bhai Sukh Bhan and Great-Grand-Son of Bhai Kalyana.
Bhai Kalyana had founded the village Kathu Nangal. Baba Buddha was also a
resident of Kathu Nangal and a contemporary of Bhai Kalyana who was one of
the Chiefs of the village.
Bhai Kalyana along with Baba Buddha shifted from
Kathu Nangal to Gaggo Mahal and later settled at Ramdas in district
Amritsar. Bhai Kalyana served the Guru’s establishment from the first Gurus
to the sixth Gurus. He participated along with his family in voluntary
service (Kar Seva) at Darbar Sahib and under the orders of Guru Arjan Dev.
He performed the task of bringing timber from Mandi State. His name is
mentioned in the Hukamnamahs of Guru Har Gobind Sahib from which it can be
realized what a respectable place this family had in the Guru’s
establishment. Bhai Sukh Bhan built Kalyan Ashram in the Mohlla Dilwali of
the village Raisinha near Delhi after the name of his father Bhai Kalyana.
He established a school of Gurmat Music at this Ashram where hymn-singing of
Gurbani was taught. Later on this Ashram was called Bhai Kalyana di
Dharamashal which was a centre of Sikh activities. This Dharamshal was also
the residence of Bhai Agya Ram, the elder uncle of Bhai Jaita. But some
members of this family continued to reside at Kathu Nangal, Gaggo Mahal and
Ramdas in District Amritsar in Punjab. Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib often stayed
at Bhai Kalyana’s Dharamshal during his visit to Delhi. Bhai Sukh Bhan, Bhai
Jas Bhan, Bhai Agya Ram and Bhai Sada Nand continued to serve the Guru’s
establishment like their ancestors. They were great scholars, musicians and
excellent singers of their time.
Baba Jiwan Singh had stood by Guru ji and showed the feats of his bravery in
the following battles:
Battle of Bhangani
Battle of Nadaun
Battle of Anandpur Sahib
Battle of Bajrur
Battle of Nirmohgarh
First Battle of Anandpur
Sudden Attack on Anandpur Sahib
Second Battle of Anandpur
Third Battle of Anandpur Sahib
Fourth Battle of Anandpur Sahib
The Battle of Bansali/Kalmot
The Battle of Sirsa
13. Battle of Chamkaur
14. Sudden Attack-A
Battle near Chamkaur Sahib
15. Freeing a Brahman
Woman at Bassi Kalan
While fighting the battle of Sirsa, Sahibzada Ajit Singh was caught in the
siege of the enemies. Baba Jiwan Singh rode his horse, holding swords in
both hands, held the reins of his horse in his mouth, made a short work of
many enemies and succeeded in extricating Sahibzada Ajit Singh safe and
sound from the circle of the enemy.
There can hardly be any fighter in the world who may ride his horse, holding
the reins in mouth and wield two swords with his right and left hand at the
same time. Similarly, no match to Baba Jiwan Singh has been so far born in
the world who may make sure shots with two rifles at the same time. That is
why during the warfare he always kept his two guns Nagni and Baghni with
The Guru introduced the war-drum (Ranjit Nagara) to inject heroism in
his soldiers during the war, the second of which could be heard over a long
distance. The drum was beaten under the supervision of Baba Jiwan Singh
because he was the Chief Drummer, and the fighting was always started with
the beat of the drum. He possessed special expertise in guerilla warfare. In
addition to this Guru had appointed him the Chief of the Intelligence
Department. According to historical research he was also the tutor of the
two elder sons (Sahibzada Ajit Singh & Sahibzada Jujhar Singh) of the Guru
in military training.
Sri Gur Katha :
He was not only a great fighter, but he was also an excellent poet. His work
“Sri Gur Katha” is a great contribution to the Sikh religion. This book
contains a first hand account of Guru’s battles.
The praises of Guru sung in a devoted and emotional manner in this book make
Baba Jiwan Singh a poet of the rank of Bhatt Poets in Guru Granth Sahib. The
picture of the personality of Satguru is matchless and unique. He has also
recounted in this book all the incidents in relation to Amrit captivation,
the mode of preparing Amrit, the importance of five symbols in Sikhism, sikh
conduct and conventions, martyrdoms of Guru Teg Bahadur and Bhai Sada Nand
(The Father of Bhai Jiwan Singh) in detail.
To express his thoughts and
emotions Baba Jiwan Singh has used various like Kabitt, Swaiyya, Dohira,
Sarkhandi, Kundlia, Rala, Bisham Padi (Shabad), Chopayee, Sortha etc. To
express his meaning, Baba Jiwan Singh has used various literary techniques
such as Alliteration, Simile, Metaphor, Proverbs, Examples, Weepsa Alankar,
Utparokhia Alankar and Ulek Alankar. His writing is dominated by thoughts
founded on devotion, on which account essence of solace is supreme, but he
has also made use of Pathos, Vir Ras and Vibh Ras.
The style is the image of a writer’s personality. Love of the Guru in his
heart, courage, devotion, faith, forbearance, humility, enthusiasm etc. all
have contributed to making his style distinctive.
Martyrdom at Chamkaur Sahib di GarhiGuru Gobind Singh along with 40
Singhs, including two of his older sons, and the five Panj Piyare, the
original "Beloved Five" reached Chamkaur di Garhi, after leaving Anandpur on
the night of December 22/23, 1704A.D., crossing the flooded Sarsa rivulet,
and resting at Kotla Nihang Khan near Ropar. They asked permission of the
city Rajput chief for shelter to rest for the night in their garhi or
The Battle Of Chamkaur Sahib was a battle fought between Khalsa led by Guru
Gobind Singh against the Mughal forces led by Wazir Khan of Sirhind City and
other Mughal Generals.
Endowed with the Plume and RaimentThe Battle of Chamkaur Sahib was
fought, in which Guru’s two Sahibzade (sons) and 27 Singhs (followers)
embraced martyrdom. The surviving 11 Singhs in the fortress appointed five
loved sons ones out of themselves, who commanded Guru to quit the fortress.
Taking it for a divine command Guru accepted this decision. Consequently,
before quitting he had to take a decision to assign his plume, weapons,
dress and appearance. All this was to be bestowed upon some great individual
who might have served the Guru’s establishment with faith, loyalty and
devotion. His Name was “Baba Jiwan Singh (Bhai Jaita)”. The Guru graced him
“Ranghreta Guru Ka Beta”,
Guru left the Garhi of Chamkaur after gracing Baba Jiwan Singh “Guru Ka
Beta”. The Mogul force invaded the Garhi of Chamkaur on the morning on 23
Dec, 1704 A.D. There were only Seven Singhs and Baba Jiwan Singh in the
Havelli. Seven Singh soldiers came out on horses for fighting except for
Baba Jiwan Singh Ji. Baba Jiwan Singh stayed inside the Garhi or Havelli and
he fired with the two guns Nagni and Baghni and with the arrows which were
given to Baba by Guru Gobind Singh when Guru left Chamkaur Sahib. He fired
from the top of the Garhi.
Moguls considered that Guru was still inside
because the Kalgi (Plume) of Guru Gobind Singh was shined on the head of
Baba Jiwan Singh Ji. Moguls were deceived. Baba continued firing with guns
and arrows and beat the Nagaraa. Seven soldiers were fighting with bravery.
The shouts of 'Nagaraa', and sounds of swords, horses and men made the
battlefield horrible. Just seven Singh soldiers were fighting with ten Lac
Mogul soldiers. They showed their skill and did stunts in the battlefield.
Moguls were stunned at their bravery. They were martyred separately.
Baba still fought alone. Bullets and arrows were finished inside the Garhi.
Baba Jiwan Singh came down from the top of the Garhi or Hawelli. Baba held
swords in both hands. Baba broke out on the Moguls, who thought that only
Guru Gobind Singh was alone inside and now Guru was fighting after he came
out from the Garhi because the Kalgi of Guru was shining on the forehead of
Baba Jiwan Singh Ji. Poshaka (Dress) made the false thought true of the
enemies. The Mogul force wanted to catch Guru alive so that they could get
rewards and high positions in the Mugal Royal Darbar. But the son of Guru
(Ranghreta Guru Ka Beta) did not make their wish true. Baba Jiwan Singh
fought against them and showed his bravery.
He held two swords in both of
his hands and broke out at enemies. At last, the enemies were unable to
catch Baba alive. So, they fired arrows and guns at Baba Jiwan Singh Ji. The
fountain of blood burst from the body. At last, Baba Jiwan Singh was
martyred at Chamkaur Sahib on 23 December 1704 as Guru said, “Sawa Lakh Se
Ek Lraaun”. He was the last martyr of Chamkaur Sahib who fought against 10
lac of Mogul forces.
When Baba fell down the Mogul force seemed very happy. Wajid Khan and all the Mogul warriors were very happy that they killed Guru
Gobind Singh Ji. They separated the head from the body and presented it to
the Mogul Emperor at Delhi. But after investigation it proved that this was
not the head of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. The head was that of Baba Jiwan Singh
Ji. This fact was found out by Zebunissa, the daughter of Aurangzeb the
Emperor of Mugal.
The responsibility of holding the funeral for the bodies of Shaheed Singhs
was given to Mata Sharan Kaur by Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Guru said to Mata
that she should hold a funeral for all the Singh’s bodies and the body of
his elder son was given a funeral separate from the others. Bibi asked, 'How
can I recognize your elder son?' Guru replied, 'His body had no head and he
wore my poshaka.'
In the battle of Chamkaur Sahib, the father in law Bhai Khajan Singh,
younger brother Bhai Sangat Singh and two sons Bhai Sukha Singh and Bhai
Seva Singh of Baba Jiwan Singh was also martyred.
Gurudwara Shaheed Burj Sahib :
At the place where Baba Jiwan Singh was martyred, Gurudawar Burj Sahib was
situated. This Gurudwara Sahib was situated in the memory of Baba Jiwan
Singh Ji. Bibi Sharan Kaur gave a funeral for Baba Jiwan Singh at this
place. There is a historical well there, where Guru Ji, two Sahibzadas and
other Singh soldiers drank water from this well.