22. Gurbaani Raag Tukhaari
Tukhari was probably based on a folk tune and was very likely developed by Guru Nanak into a raga for the singing certain sabdas. No raga of this name appears in the classifications of the period when sabdas were being composed and the Holy Book compiled. A raga called Mukhari may be found in the classifications of Karnataka (South Indian) ragas during the period from the 15th to the 18th centuries. Tukhari was used by Guru Nanak, Guru Ram Das and Guru Arjan. Guru Nanak's composition Bara Maha is set to this Raga. It appears to be a raga for the morning hours to be sung in winter. Its name Tukhari is the popular forth of tushar (Sanskrit for winter frost). No melodic material for the Tukhari is available but, for the sake of comparison, the scale of ,Mukhari is given:
Aroh Ni Sa, Ga Ma Pa, Ni Sa
Avroh Sa Ni Dha Pa, Ni Dha Pa, M'a Ga. Re Sa
Pakar Ni N Dha Pa, Ma Pa, NIa Ga, Re
This raga was very popular about hundred years ago. In addition to Gurubani it was also sung for other types of compositions. Guru Nanak used this raga to compose his 'Baramah'. According to a few authors this raga is same as raga Madhvanti, but it is not true, Tukhari is a distinctive raga in its own right. Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha, however, classifies it as a ragini.
This raga is not mentioned in the Ragamala listed at the end of Guru Granth Sahib.
The scale and notes of the raga are as follows:
Arohi (ascending scale) - ni sa, ga re sa, ga ma pa ma pa ma pa, pa dha ni dha pa ma pa, sa na sa
Avrohi (descending scale) - sa ni sa ni sa, ni dha pa, pa ma pa ma pa, ma ga re sa, re m sa
The vadi (most popular) note is 'pa' and samvadi (second most popular) note is ' sa'.
This raga is sung in the first part of the day i.e., from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. The season of its recitation is winter (sharad) i.e., during October, November. In Guru Granth Sahib it has hymns from pages 1107 - 1117 ( 11pages).
The composers of bani (hymns) in this raga are:
Guru Nanak Dev
Guru Arjan Dev